Archives For November 30, 1999

Linux Kernel 6.2 was release this Sunday. Linus Torvalds announced it at

So here we are, right on (the extended) schedule, with 6.2 out.

Nothing unexpected happened last week, with just a random selection of small fixes spread all over, with nothing really standing out. The shortlog is tiny and appended below, you can scroll through it if you’re bored.

Wed have a couple of small things that Thorsten was tracking on the regression side, but I wasn’t going to apply any last-minute patches that weren’t actively pushed by maintainers, so they will have to show up for stable. Nothing seemed even remotely worth trying to delay things for

What’s New in Kernel 5.16

  • Initial support for NVIDIA RTX 30 “Ampere” GPU accelerated graphics with Nouveau open-source driver.
  • Intel Arc graphics support being stable and enabled out-of-the-box!
  • Raspberry Pi 4K @ 60Hz display support.
  • New PlayStaion driver with Sony DualShock 4 controller support.
  • Added OneXPlayer senser and fan driver.
  • Dell Data Vault WMI driver.
  • Google Chrome OS Human Presence Sensor support
  • RealTek RT1318 and Rockchip RK3588 support.

If you want to learn more features about Kernel 6.2, read this blog post.

How to Install Kernel 6.2 in Ubuntu 22.04+/Linux Mint 21

NOTE: The Mainline Kernel packages are not appropriate for production use. Only install it for testing purpose or for specific drivers.

The Mainline Kernel PPA has built the packages for Ubuntu and  its based systems with modern 64-bit (amd64), arm64/armhf mobile, ppc64el and s390x CPU architecture types support.

User can select download the packages from the link page below:

For modern 64-bit PC/laptop, they are:

  1. linux-headers-6.2.0-060200-xxxxxx_all.deb
  2. linux-headers-6.2.0-060200-generic_xxx_amd64.deb
  3. linux-modules-6.2.0-060200-generic_xxx_amd64.deb
  4. linux-image-unsigned-6.2.0-060200-generic_xxx_amd64.deb

After downloading them, right click on blank area in Downloads page and select “Open in Terminal”. Finally, install the kernel packages via command:

sudo apt install ./linux*.deb

Alternatively you can download and install the kernel packages via terminal commands ( open terminal via Ctrl+Alt+T):

cd /tmp/

wget -c

wget -c

wget -c

wget -c

sudo dpkg -i *.deb

Once installed, restart your computer and verify by running uname -a command in terminal!

Uninstall Linux Kernel 6.2:

Restart your machine and select boot with the previous kernel in boot menu under ‘Grub2 -> Advanced Option for Ubuntu’. Then run command to remove Linux Kernel 6.2:

sudo apt remove --autoremove linux-headers-6.2.0-060200 linux-modules-6.2.0-060200-generic

For those who want to try out the latest Linux Kernel 6.1.x, the Mainline Kernel PPA finally works again.

Ubuntu developer team maintains the Mainline Kernel PPA with latest Kernel packages. It however failed to build for all the Kernel releases since v6.0.10.

After more than a month until the release of Kernel 6.1.4, the maintainers finally fixed the issue and built the kernel packages correctly for Ubuntu 22.04 +.

How to Install Kernel 6.1.x in Ubuntu 22.04

NOTE: Mainline Kernels are built for testing purpose! They are not supported and are not appropriate for production use. Use them at your own risk

Unlike normal Ubuntu PPAs, there’s no need to add the Mainline PPA into system repository. Just download the .deb packages from the repository page and install them.

1. At the moment of writing, the latest version is Kernel 6.1.6, available to download at the link below. For other versions, go to this page.

For modern 64-bit computer/laptop, select download the top 4 amd64/build packages. For arm64 devices, download the 3 of next 6 packages (either with or without 64k). There are as well the packages for armhf, ppc64el, and s390x available to download.

Or, user can run commands below one by one in terminal to download the packages (64-bit only):

wget -c

wget -c

wget -c

wget -c

2. After downloading the packages, install them via apt command.

If you downloaded the packages via web browser link, you may first open the Downloads folder in file manager. Then, right-click on blank area and select “Open in Terminal” first to open that folder as working directory in terminal.

Finally, run command to install all .deb packages in the folder:

sudo apt install ./*.deb

3. When done, restart your machine and verify your kernel via command:

uname -a

NOTE: Mainline Kernels are not signed. You may need to disable Secure Boot in BIOS to make it work.

Uninstall Kernel 6.1.x

For any reason, you can easily remove the Kernel by doing following steps.

1. Firstly, reboot and select the old Kernel in boot menu under “Advanced Options for Ubuntu”.

2. Open terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T), and run command to remove Kernel you just installed (change version number accordingly):

sudo apt remove --autoremove linux-modules-6.1.6-060106-generic linux-headers-6.1.6-060106

Tip: you may type linux-modules-6 and hit Tab key to auto-complete the package name. Also type linux-headers-6 and hit Tab for the second.

Linux Kernel 6.0 was released hours ago! Here are the new features and how to install instructions for Ubuntu 22.04.

So, as is hopefully clear to everybody, the major version number change is more about me running out of fingers and toes than it is about any big fundamental changes.Linus Torvalds announced.

New Features in Linux Kernel 6.0

The new kernel introduced experimental support of Intel’s A750 and A770 graphics card, using i915 DRM kernel driver with “force_probe” option. PCI support for LoongArch CPU architecture from China and OpenRISC architecture.

The release also added audio driver for Intel Meteor Lake, AMD Raphael and Jadeite, V3D Direct Rendering Manager (DRM) driver for Raspberry Pi 4, and Intel Software Guard Extensions (SGX) support.

Other changes include:

  • Support Lenovo ThinkPad X13s Arm laptop
  • Low-memory mode support for F2FS file system.
  • Habana Labs Gaudi2 Support
  • XP-PEN Deco L Drawing Tablet support.
  • Fix touchpad & keyboard issues after suspend for many TUXEDO laptops

How to Install Linux Kernel 6.0 in Ubuntu:

NOTE: Mainline Kernel packages are neither officially supported and nor appropriate for production use. Install it only for testing or certain use.

Ubuntu builds the latest Kernel packages via Mainline Kernel PPA. For Linux Kernel 6.0, download the packages from the link below:

Select download amd64 packages for modern 64-bit PC/laptop, or armhf/arm64 for ARM devices such as Apple Silicon and Raspberry Pi. And, install them one by one in the turns below:

  1. linux-headers-6.0.0-060000_***_all.deb
  2. linux-headers-6.0.0-060000-generic_***.deb
  3. linux-modules-6.0.0-060000-generic_***.deb
  4. linux-image-unsigned-6.0.0-060000-generic_***.deb

To download & install the packages from command line, open terminal (or connect to console) and run the commands below one by one (for 64-bit only):

wget -c

wget -c

wget -c

wget -c

sudo apt install ./linux-*.deb

After installing the Kernel packages, restart your machine and enjoy!


To restore the previous Kernel, start or restart your machine. In the system boot-menu, go to “Advanced” and select booting the previous kernel.

After booting the old kernel, run command below to remove Linux 6.0:

sudo apt remove linux-headers-6.0.0* linux-modules-6.0.0* linux-image-unsigned-6.0.0*

Linux Kernel 5.19 was released! Ubuntu Mainline PPA has made the packages for testing purpose.

Linus Torvalds announced this kernel release last night:

On a personal note, the most interesting part here is that I did the release (and am writing this) on an arm64 laptop. It’s something I’ve been waiting for for a _loong_ time, and it’s finally reality, thanks
to the Asahi team. We’ve had arm64 hardware around running Linux for a long time, but none of it has really been usable as a development platform until now.

Linux 5.19 Kernel features initial support for LoongArch CPU architecture, Apple M1 NVMe controller and Apple eFuse driver. There are also initial graphics driver for Raptor Lake P (Intel’s 13th generation processors), In-Field Scan (IFS) to circuit level tests on a CPU core, and bug-fix for Intel laptops running hot and draining the battery faster.

Other features include:

  • Zstd compressed firmware support
  • Google Whiskers Touchpad support.
  • Lenovo X12 trackpoint support.
  • Armv9 Scalable Matrix Extension support
  • Big TCP and pureLiFi’s device driver.

How to Install Kernel 5.19 in Ubuntu 22.04:

NOTE: The mainline kernel packages are NOT officially support! You install them ONLY for specific hardware support or testing purpose!

First, go to the PPA web page via the link button below:

Select download amd64/build package for modern PC/laptop, arm64/armhf build for ARM devices, or ppc64el/s390x depends on your CPU architecture type. And, install the packages in following order:

  • linux-headers-5.19.0-051900_xxx_all.deb
  • linux-headers-5.19.0-051900-generic_xxx_amd64.deb
  • linux-modules-5.19.0-051900-generic_xxx_amd64.deb
  • linux-image-unsigned-5.19.0-051900-generic_xxx_amd64.deb

Or, open terminal by pressing Ctrl+Alt+T on keyboard, and run following commands one by one to download and install the Kernel packages (64-bit only).

cd ~/Downloads
wget -c
wget -c
wget -c
wget -c
sudo apt install ./linux-headers-5.19.0*.deb ./linux-image-unsigned-5.19.0*.deb ./linux-modules-5.19.0*.deb

Once installed, restart your computer and verify by running uname -a command in terminal.

For those prefer to use a graphical tool, there’s Ubuntu Mainline Kernel Installer can help to make things easier:

Uninstall Kernel 5.19

To remove the Kernel packages, you need to first restart your computer, select boot an old kernel in “Advanced” sub-menu of Grub boot-loader.

And finally run command in terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) to remove Kernel 5.19:

sudo apt remove linux-headers-5.19.0* linux-modules-5.19.0* linux-image-unsigned-5.19.0*

Linux Kernel 5.18 was released on this Sunday. Ubuntu 22.04 user can install this new kernel via the mainline PPA repository.

The new Kernel release comes with many new features, and here are some of them:

  • Intel Hardware Feedback Interface “HFI” Driver
  • Intel Software Defined Silicon (SDSi) driver
  • AMD HSMP driver
  • Intel Indirect Branch Tracking (IBT)
  • New Razer Driver & Tablet improvements.
  • Intel’s Platform Environment Control Interface (PECI)
  • Intel Alder Lake N graphics and Alder Lake “PS” audio support.
  • SiGma Micro keyboard control ICs support

How to Install Kernel 5.18 in Ubuntu 22.04:

Ubuntu has build the kernel package in its Kernel Mainline PPA, available to install in Ubuntu 22.04 LTS.

NOTE: The Mainline Kernel package does not include any Ubuntu-provided drivers or patches, which are NOT appropriate for production use. ONLY install when you do require it and use at your own risk!

The Kernel 5.18 .deb packages are available to download at the link below:

For Ubuntu 22.04 desktop PC/laptop, press Ctrl+Alt+T on keyboard to open terminal. When it opens, run the commands below one by one to download the packages:

cd /tmp
wget -c
wget -c
wget -c
wget -c

Then install them via command:

cd /tmp && sudo apt install ./*.deb

In addition, there’s a third-party graphical tool can do the job with a few clicks.

Install Kernel via third-party tool

After installation, restart your computer and verify by running command:

uname -a

How to Remove Kernel 5.18:

To remove this kernel from your system, firstly boot (re-boot) with the previous Kernel from ‘Grub menu -> Advanced options’.

When you’re in, run the command below in terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) to remove the Kernel 5.18:

sudo apt remove --autoremove linux-headers-5.18.0-051800 linux-image-unsigned-5.18.0-051800-generic

For those sticking to the old Ubuntu 18.04, but need higher Linux kernel version for specific hardware support, here’s how to install the Linux Kernel 5.13 from Ubuntu 20.04 repository.

NOTE: Ubuntu 20.04’s kernel package does install and seems running good in Ubuntu 18.04. But I’m not sure if it will cause compatibility issues. Install it ONLY that you do require it, and use it at your own risk!!

Linux Kernel 5.13 features include:

  • Initial and early support for Apple M1.
  • New “Landlock” Linux security module.
  • Initial graphics support for Alder Lake S.
  • AMD FreeSync HDMI support.
  • New Intel cooling driver
  • Realtek RTL8156 and RTL8153D support
  • New drivers support for Amazon’s Luna game controller.
  • Apple Magic Mouse 2 support .
  • Realtek RT1019, RT1316, RT711 and RT715 support.

Install Linux Kernel 5.13 in Ubuntu 18.04:

You know, the Mainline Kernel PPA maintains the latest kernel package. However, it’s now built against the most recent Ubuntu libc6 library.

The Kernel package from Ubuntu 20.04 repository could be the only way to get recent Kernels for Ubuntu 18.04, except for building by yourself.

1. Add Ubuntu 20.04 Updates repository:

Firstly, press Ctrl+Alt+T on keyboard to open terminal. When it opens, paste the command below and hit enter:

sudo sh -c 'echo "deb focal-updates main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list'

The command adds focal-updates repository to your system software sources.

2. Set lower priority for the repository:

Also in terminal window, run command to create and open a config file via Gedit text editor:

sudo gedit /etc/apt/preferences.d/99focal-updates

When the file opens, add following lines and save it:

Package: *
Pin: release a=focal-updates
Pin-Priority: 1

After that, your system will not automatically install updates from this repository, unless you do it manually.

3. Update package cache:

Before being able to install packages from that repository, refresh system cache via command:

sudo apt update

If you’re following this tutorial on 18.04 based system that missing GPG key, run the commands below one by one to get them:

sudo apt-key adv --keyserver --recv-keys 3B4FE6ACC0B21F32
sudo apt-key adv --keyserver --recv-keys 871920D1991BC93C

4. Install Kernel 5.13:

Finally install the 20.04’s kernel package via the command below. So far, it’s Kernel 5.13.

sudo apt install linux-generic-hwe-20.04

After installation, restart your PC and verify via command:

uname -a

How to Remove Kernel 5.13 from Ubuntu 18.04:

To remove the focal-updates repository, run command to edit software sources file:

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

When the file opens, remove or comment (add # at the beginning) the line of:

deb focal-updates main

After saved it, run sudo apt update to refresh the cache.

To remove Linux Kernel 5.13, you need to firstly restart and select boot with an old kernel (v5.4.x) from boot menu -> Advanced options.

Once you get into Ubuntu 18.04 with the previous Kernel, run the command below to remove Kernel 5.13:

sudo apt remove linux-image-5.13.0-37-generic linux-headers-5.13.0-37-generic linux-hwe-5.13-headers-5.13.0-37

NOTE: Ubuntu updates the kernel packages regularly, the package version may be different!! Change it to the one that you installed.

Linux Kernel 5.17 was finally released last night after 8 release candidates. Linus Torvalds announced that:

So we had an extra week of at the end of this release cycle, and I’m happy to report that it was very calm indeed. We could probably have skipped it with not a lot of downside, but we did get a few last-minute reverts and fixes in and avoid some brown-paper bugs that would otherwise have been stable fodder, so it’s all good.

The new kernel comes with

  • New AMD P-State driver for Zen 2 and newer systems with ACPI CPPC.
  • RISC-V sv48 Support to be able to handle more memory.
  • Sensor monitoring support for more ASUS motherboards.
  • CXL memory hotplug support.
  • Initial support for next-generation Raptor Lake S graphics.
  • Initial support for a Sierra XM1210 receiver.
  • Intel Alder Lake N audio support.
  • Real-Time clock driver for Nintendo GameCube / Wii / Wii U.

How to Install Kernel 5.17 in Ubuntu 22.04:

IMPORTANT: The Mainline Kernel packages do not include any Ubuntu-provided drivers or patches! You must know what you’re going to do!

The Mainline Kernel PPA has built the new kernel packages. It however requires libc >= 2.34 and libssl3. Which means only Ubuntu 22.04 user can try out the new Kernel packages. Though, Ubuntu 21.10 may try to meet the requirement via this tutorial.

Firstly, download the .deb packages from the link page below:

For modern 64-bit PC/laptop, download & install the packages below in turns:

  • linux-headers-5.17.0-051700_5.17.0-051700.202203202130_all.deb
  • linux-headers-5.17.0-051700-generic_5.17.0-051700.202203202130_amd64.deb
  • linux-modules-5.17.0-051700-generic_5.17.0-051700.202203202130_amd64.deb
  • linux-image-unsigned-5.17.0-051700-generic_5.17.0-051700.202203202130_amd64.deb

To make things easier, there’s a graphical tool called Mainline that allows to download & install mainline Kernels with few clicks.

And for Ubuntu 20.04 user insist on installing the new Kernel, keep an eye on this Ubuntu PPA (use it at your own risk)!

How to Remove Kernel 5.17:

Firstly, start or restart your PC and select an old kernel to boot from Grub boot-loader. After login with old Kernel, remove Kernel 5.17 via command:

sudo apt remove linux-headers-5.17.0* linux-modules-5.17.0* linux-image-unsigned-5.17.0*

Linux Kernel 5.16 was released a few days ago. Here’s how to install it in Ubuntu 20.04, Ubuntu 21.10, and/or Linux Mint 20.x.

Kernel 5.16 comes with many new features. Here are some of them:

  • Initial DisplayPort 2.0 Support For AMD Radeon Driver.
  • Intel Protected Xe Path for Gen12 graphics.
  • Intel AMX support for Sapphire Rapids.
  • Raspberry Pi Compute Module 4 support.
  • Snapdragon 690 and other new Arm hardware support such as Rockchip RK3566 and RK3688.
  • Better support for the Sony PlayStation 5 controller.
  • Better support for HP Omen laptops.
  • Realtek RT89 WiFi driver
  • Support for 2021 Apple Magic Keyboard.
  • Apple M1 PCIe driver

How to Install Kernel 5.16 in Ubuntu 21.10:

NOTE: The Mainline Kernel PPA provides packages for Ubuntu 21.10. However, it does not include any Ubuntu-provided drivers or patches, which are NOT appropriate for production use.

The .deb packages for amd64, arm64, ppc64el and s390x are available to download at the link below:

For personal computers, select generic for common system, or lowlatency for a low latency system (e.g. for recording audio):

  • linux-headers-5.16.0-xxxxxx_all.deb
  • linux-headers-5.16.0-xxx-generic(/lowlatency)_xxx_amd64.deb
  • linux-modules-5.16.0-xxx-generic(/lowlatency)_xxx_amd64.deb
  • linux-image-xxx-5.16.0-xxx-generic(/lowlatency)_xxx_amd64.deb

Keep an eye on the date in package names. 64-bit build has two versions of same package with different package date.

For those familiar with Linux command, open terminal and run commands one by one to download & install the packages:

cd /tmp/

wget -c

wget -c

wget -c

wget -c

sudo dpkg -i *.deb

Once installed, restart your computer and enjoy!

Uninstall Linux Kernel 5.16:

Restart your machine and select boot with the previous kernel in boot menu ‘Grub2 -> Advanced Option for Ubuntu’. Then run command to remove Linux Kernel 5.16:

sudo dpkg --purge linux-image-unsigned-5.16.0-051600-generic

Install Kernel 5.16 for Ubuntu 20.04:

The mainline kernel was build against Ubuntu 21.10, so it won’t install in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. However, for those insist on installing the new kernel, this project is available along with an Ubuntu PPA. Use it at your own risk!

You may run command in terminal to add the PPA:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:tuxinvader/lts-mainline

Once the Kernel 5.16 package is updated, use command to install it:

sudo apt install linux-generic-5.16

NOTE: Linux Kernel keeps rolling new releases regularly. The PPA package name varies according to the version number. It’s better to check the PPA page before running the apt command.

Linux Kernel 5.14 was released with latest features and new hardware support. Here’s how to install it in Ubuntu.

Linus Torvalds announced the release of Kernel 5.14 this Sunday:

So I realize you must all still be busy with all the galas and fancy balls and all the other 30th anniversary events, but at some point you must be getting tired of the constant glitz, the fireworks, and the champagne. That ball gown or tailcoat isn’t the most comfortable thing, either. The celebrations will go on for a few more weeks yet, but you all may just need a breather from them.

And when that happens, I have just the thing for you – a new kernel release to test and enjoy. Because 5.14 is out there, just waiting for you to kick the tires and remind yourself what all the festivities are about.

What’s New in Kernel 5.14:

The new Kernel introduced Core Scheduling to reduce SMT/HT information leak risks, new graphics support including AMD Yellow Carp, AMD Beige Goby, and Intel Alder Lake P.

There are also new or improved hardware support, including:

  • AMD Smart Shift laptops.
  • AMD SFH support for light sensor and human presence detection with newer AMD Ryzen laptops.
  • Dell Hardware Privacy laptop support.
  • Raspberry Pi 400 support.
  • Microsoft Xbox One Controller select/share button support.

How to Install Kernel 5.13 in Ubuntu:

The Mainline Kernel PPA provides packages for Ubuntu 21.04 and Ubuntu 21.10. However, it does not include any Ubuntu-provided drivers or patches, and NOT supported and are not appropriate for production use.

The .deb packages for amd64, arm64, ppc64el and s390x are available to download at the link below:

For personal computers, select generic for common system, or lowlatency for a low latency system (e.g. for recording audio):

  • linux-headers-5.14.0-xxxxxx_all.deb
  • linux-headers-5.14.0-xxx-generic(/lowlatency)_xxx_amd64.deb
  • linux-modules-5.14.0-xxx-generic(/lowlatency)_xxx_amd64.deb
  • linux-image-xxx-5.14.0-xxx-generic(/lowlatency)_xxx_amd64.deb

A graphical tool, Ubuntu Mainline Kernel Installer, is available to make life easier.

For those familiar with Linux command, open terminal and run commands one by one to download & install the packages:

cd /tmp/

wget -c

wget -c

wget -c

wget -c

sudo dpkg -i *.deb

Once installed, restart your computer and enjoy!

Since the previous packages needs Ubuntu 21.04+, you may keep an eye on this third-party PPA which re-build the Kernel with Ubuntu 20.04 LTS support.

Uninstall Linux Kernel 5.14:

Restart your machine and select boot with the previous kernel in boot menu ‘Grub2 -> Advanced Option for Ubuntu’. Then run command to remove Linux Kernel 5.14:

sudo dpkg --purge linux-image-unsigned-5.14.0-051400-generic

Happy 30th Birthday to Linux!

Last updated: August 25, 2021 — 1 Comment

Today, August 25, is the 30th anniversary of Linux!

It was 30 years ago that Linus Torvalds announced the operating system, just a hobby!

Hello everybody out there using minix-

I’m doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won’t be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This has been brewing since april, and is starting to get ready. I’d like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix; as my OS resembles it somewhat (same physical layout of the file-sytem due to practical reasons)among other things.

I’ve currently ported bash (1.08) an gcc (1.40), and things seem to work. This implies that i’ll get something practical within a few months, and I’d like to know what features most people want. Any suggestions are welcome, but I won’t promise I’ll implement them :-)

Linux is a family of open-source operating systems based on the Linux kernel. The Kernel now has more than 31 million lines of code. And there are almost one thousand Linux distributions exist.

100% of the world’s top 500 supercomputers run on Linux. It’s trusted by NASA and JPL to run a helicopter on Mars.

And Linux is getting better and better on desktop with the power of GNOME, KDE, X11, Wayland, Ubuntu, Fedora, and the open-source communities!

Join us in celebrating 30 years of Linux

The Linux Foundation has some great images for the 30th anniversary. Get one and help celebrate Linux’s birthday on either social media or your mobile device.