This simple tutorial shows how to compile and install Python 3.10.0 or other certain Python version in Ubuntu.

For Ubuntu 18.04 and Ubuntu 20.04 LTS, there’s well trusted “deadsnakes” team PPA that maintains all the Python packages. For non-LTS releases, e.g., Ubuntu 21.04 and Ubuntu 21.10, you may build the programming language package manually from the source tarball.

NOTE: Ubuntu 21.04 has Python 3.10 beta1 in universe repository, remove it if installed before doing the steps below. For Ubuntu 21.10, Python 3.10 will be soon made into the universe repository, so you may skip or install a certain version (e.g., 3.8 or 3.7) via this tutorial.

1. Preparation:

Before getting started, you need to install some essential packages for building the computer language package.

Open terminal either by pressing Ctrl+Alt+T on keyboard or by searching from start menu. When it opens, run the command below to install the dependencies:

sudo apt install wget build-essential libreadline-dev libncursesw5-dev libssl-dev libsqlite3-dev tk-dev libgdbm-dev libc6-dev libbz2-dev libffi-dev zlib1g-dev

2. Download Python Tarball:

Next, download the source package by running the wget command in terminal:

wget -c

For other Python version, go and download via web browser in this page.

And uncompress the tarball either by right-click and selecting ‘Extract Here‘ in file manager, or by running command in terminal:

tar -Jxf Python-3.10.0.tar.xz

3. Configure the source:

After extracted the source, go to new generated folder via command:

cd Python-3.10.0/

The command varies depends on which Python version you downloaded. You may right-click on the folder and choose ‘Open in Terminal‘ instead of running cd command.

When you’re in source directory, run command to configure the source with expensive, stable optimizations (PGO, etc.):

./configure --enable-optimizations

4. Build and install Python:

Finally compile and install it into “/usr/local/bin”:

sudo make altinstall -j4

Here -j4 will start 4 threads to speed up the job. Depends on your CPU, you may increase the number or just skip it.

5. Make Python 3.10 default

After installation, verify via python3.10 -V command. You may set it as default by creating symbolic links to /usr/bin/python:

sudo update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/python python /usr/local/bin/python3.10 1
sudo update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/pip pip /usr/local/bin/pip3.10 1

It’s possible to set Python3.10 as Python3. However, this may cause issues since it points to python3.9 by default.

This tutorial shows all the ways to install the 3D creation software Blender in Ubuntu, including Snap, Flatpak, native Deb packages, and compile from source tarball.

Blender is a free open-source software for creating animated films, visual effects, computer games. It’s available to install in Ubuntu via a few different package formats. Here you may choose the one that you prefer.

1. Blender Snap package:

The software developer team offers official snap package that works on Ubuntu and most other Linux distributions. Snap is an universal Linux package format developed by Canonical, the company behind Ubuntu.

The Snap package features:

  • Easy to install.
  • Auto update.
  • Maintained by Blender Foundation.
  • Works on 64-bit modern PC only.
  • Run in box with snapd daemon, though pre-installed out-of-the-box.
  • Take more disk space than native deb package.

Install Blender Snap package:

The package is easy to install as mentioned. Simply open Ubuntu Software, search for and install Blender. From both package details and header bar, it’s marked as Snap package.

2. Blender in Ubuntu Universe repository:

Ubuntu has the 3D creation software in its official repositories. Though it’s always old, it has multi-arch support!

stock Blender package features:

  • Easy to install.
  • Official package by Ubuntu, but no update anymore.
  • Works on 64-bit PC, arm64 (Apple Silicon, Raspberry Pi), armhf, ppc64el, and s390x processors.

The stock deb package is also available to install in Ubuntu Software, though it sucks and may not work! Instead, users may open terminal by pressing Ctrl+Alt+T on keyboard, and run apt command instead:

sudo apt update && sudo apt install blender

And to uninstall the package, use sudo apt remove --autoremove blender command in terminal.

3. Blender Flatpak package:

Flatpak is another universal Linux package format that was developed as part of the project. Blender is available as Flatpak package in the flathub repository.

The Flatpak package features:

  • Auto update.
  • Maintained by the community.
  • 64-bit modern PC only.
  • Run in box with flatpak daemon.
  • Take more disk space than native deb package.

Install Blender Flatpak package:

To install the package, open terminal either by searching from activities overview screen or by pressing Ctrl+Alt+T on keyboard. When terminal opens, run following commands one by one.

  1. Run command to install flatpak daemon:
    sudo apt install flatpak
  2. Add the flathub repository:
    flatpak remote-add --if-not-exists flathub
  3. Finally install Blender via command:
    flatpak install flathub org.blender.Blender

And it can be easily removed via flatpak uninstall org.blender.Blender command.

4. Blender Portable Linux Tarball:

The Blender website provides Linux Tarball in its download page. Just grab the package, extract in your file manager, and right-click run the executable file from generated folder will launch the program.

No installation required, but only works for Linux on 64-bit modern desktop PC and laptop.

5. Install Blender from Ubuntu PPA:

Some Ubuntu users do NOT like the Snap and Flatpak packages. Besides portable Linux tarball, third-party PPAs is one of the choices.

The PPA package features:

  • Native deb packges.
  • Able to upgrade through “Software Updater”.
  • Maintained by unofficial third-parties.

Blender PPAs:

There are quite a few Ubuntu PPAs contains the 3D creation software package. You can find them in THIS PAGE.

So far, the Rob Savoury’s PPA contains the most recent Blender 2.93.4 (check the link) packages for Ubuntu 16.04, Ubuntu 18.04, Ubuntu 20.04 and higher for 64-bit PC. However, it was built with updated FFmpeg libraries that might break other package dependencies in your system.

To install Blender from the PPA, open terminal and run the commands below one by one:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:savoury1/ffmpeg4
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:savoury1/blender
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
sudo apt-get install blender

And to remove the PPA packages, run following commands one by one in terminal to purge the PPA repositories which will also downgrade the installed packages:

sudo apt install ppa-purge && sudo ppa-purge ppa:savoury1/blender
sudo ppa-purge ppa:savoury1/ffmpeg4

6. Blender Appimage package:

The software is also available as single Appimage binary package, though it seems not being updated regularly.

The Appimage is a non-install package works on most Linux systems. Users just have to add executable permission in file’s Properties dialog, then right-click and select run to launch the program.

The Appimage package features:

  • 64-bit PC only.
  • no installation required.
  • Runs in most Linux, like Snap and Flatpak.
  • Unofficial.

The Blender Appimage is available to download at THIS PAGE and it’s v2.90 at the moment.

7. Compile Blender from the Source:

If none of the previous methods meet your need, you can build the software package from source code, though it’s not recommended for beginners.

Build from the source features:

  • Not beginner friendly.
  • Works on all processor architecture, though Blender 2.8+ need GPU with OpenGL 3.3+ support
  • Build whatever version with optional functions as user prefer.
  • Build process may fail due to “unknown” reason, and need technical support.

How to Compile Blender from source tarball.

Firstly, download the source tarball from the link page below:

Install the build dependencies:

1.) After downloaded the source tarball, extract it in the file manager. Then right-click on source folder and select ‘Open in Terminal

Blender 2.9x has an ‘’ script that automatically install the build depends both from system repositories and by download and building others from source.

2.) When terminal opens after clicking the previous menu option, first run command to install essential packages:

sudo apt install build-essential git subversion cmake libx11-dev libxxf86vm-dev libxcursor-dev libxi-dev libxrandr-dev libxinerama-dev libglew-dev libwayland-dev wayland-protocols libegl-dev libxkbcommon-dev libdbus-1-dev linux-libc-dev

3.) Next, run the script to start installing build dependencies:

sudo ./build_files/build_environment/

NOTE: the script may fail building dependencies from source tarballs. You may skip and/or specifies what to build via flags. And, find out the command options via:

sudo ./build_files/build_environment/ --help

So the command might be (run scrip with --show-deps shows required libraries):

sudo ./build_files/build_environment/ --with-embree --build-python --skip-oiio

4.) You may need to run the script several times to install the dependencies successfully. After that, create “build” folder in the source directory:

mkdir build && cd build

And configure the source with your preferred options, for example:


The command will generate “CMakeCache.txt” in “build” folder under source. You can edit the file to change build options.

5.) Finally build Blender if everything goes OK. Depends on how many CPU core that you have, you may change -j4 (4 threads) to -j8 to speed up the process.

make -j4

And finally install Blender via sudo make install if make succeed.


For Ubuntu users, there are quite a few ways to get Blender running. The easiest and official way is search for and installing the SNAP package from Ubuntu Software. However, the old .deb package in universe repository support more processors, e.g., Apple Silicon, Raspberry Pi and other Mobile devices. To test without installing, there’s Linux portable tarball present in official download page. And third-party Ubuntu PPAs maintains most recent packages in native .deb format. Also, advanced users may build it from source with free options.

After several alpha, beta and rc tests, the Python programming language finally released version 3.10 today!

Python 3.10 will receive bug-fix updates in next 18 months. After that, it’s supported with 5-year security updates until October 2026.

What’s New in Python 3.10:

  • Pattern matching syntax, inspired by similar syntax found in Scala, Erlang, and other languages.
  • Support using enclosing parentheses for continuation across multiple lines in context managers
  • Allow writing union types as X | Y
  • Add optional length-checking to zip
  • Precise line numbers for debugging and other tools
  • Require OpenSSL 1.1.1 or newer
  • Remove Py_UNICODE encoder APIs
  • Add optional EncodingWarning
  • Explicit Type Aliases
  • Parameter Specification Variables

See the release note for more about Python 3.10.

How to Install Python 3.10 in Ubuntu:

The well trusted “deadsnakes” team PPA has made the packages for Ubuntu 20.04, Ubuntu 18.04, and derivatives, e.g., Linux Mint 20, Elementary OS 6 and Zorin OS 16.

1.) Firstly, open terminal by either searching from overview screen or pressing Ctrl+Alt+T on keyboard. When it opens, run command to add the PPA:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:deadsnakes/ppa

2.) Then refresh system cache and install the language via command:

sudo apt update && sudo apt install python3.10

Use Python 3.10 as default Python3:

It’s possible to make Python3 in Ubuntu to be Python3.10 via following commands. However, it causes issues, such as Gnome Terminal refuses to launch. Do it at your own risk!

  • Check current Python3 version:
    python3 --version
  • Use update-alternatives to create symbolic links to python3 (replace python3.8 in Ubuntu 16.04 with ):
    sudo update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/python3 python3 /usr/bin/python3.8 1
    sudo update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/python3 python3 /usr/bin/python3.10 2
  • And choose which one to use as Python3 via command:
    sudo update-alternatives --config python3

Mozilla Firefox 93.0 was officially released today. The release features AVIF image support and further security improvements.

The AV1 image format (AVIF) is an image file format for storing images or image sequences compressed with AV1 in the HEIF file format. It offers significant file size reduction compare to JPEG, PNG and WebP. Google Chrome added it support since version 85. By releasing v93.0, Firefox now has AVIF image support.

Some PDF files have interactive fields to fill in data. Since Firefox 83, the built-in PDF viewer supports filling fields such as text, check boxes, and radio buttons. In the new release, it adds more forms (XFA-based forms, used by multiple governments and banks) support.

Firefox PDF viewer filling forms

To protect against potentially malicious or unsafe downloads, Firefox now blocks insecure HTTP downloads on a secure HTTPs web page, and blocks downloads in sandboxed iframes, unless the iframe is explicitly annotated with the allow-downloads attribute. Though, an option is available to select download anyway.

Other changes in Firefox 93 include:

  • Automatically unload tabs on Windows, when system is running out of memory.
  • Prompt to finish installation for macOS users first time running Firefox from a mounted .dmg file.
  • Improved SmartBlock and new Referrer Tracking Protections.
  • Fixed working with Orca screen reader.
  • And various security fixes.

How to Get Firefox 93.0:

Ubuntu will build and publish the latest Firefox packages through the security & updates (main) repository in next few days (check the launchpad build page). The best choice is just wait and upgrade Firefox using “Software Updater” once available.

For the release note, as well as download link for the portable tarball that contains non-install executable file to launch Firefox, go to:

The graphical auto shutdown app KShutdown released version 5.90 with feature to reboot from Linux into another OS automatically.

KShutdown is a free open-source app that provides a simple Qt based user interface. It allows users to automatically shutdown, restart, hibernate, sleep, log-out, or run a command on certain time, after a period of time, on user inactivity or other event.

The app is getting more and more powerful. The latest 5.90, beta for next 6.0 release, introduced experimental multi-booting support. User can now automatically reboot from Linux into another OS, such as Windows, from Grub menu entries.

KShutdown reboot into another OS

The new feature needs administrator user privilege to get access ‘/boot/grub/grubenv’. The app however does not apply it properly so far, and user need to start it manually via sudo kshutdown from command line.

And it does not read the Grub menu automatically, though it can be set manually in ‘Tools -> Configure KShutdown -> Restart’. Use the app ‘Grub Customizer’ to get the menu entries.

Manually write Grub Menu entries (from grub-customizer)

Other features in KShutdown 5.90 include:

  • Add “File Monitor” trigger (detects a file remove/create).
  • New configurable global shortcuts to show/hide main window, actions window.
  • Add more “journalctl” commands in ‘Tools -> Run’ menu.
  • Basic Qt 6 support.
  • Add Help → System Information menu to show basic system and app info.
  • Various minor UI tweaks and improvements.
  • And various bug-fixes.

How to get KShutdown in Ubuntu Linux

KShutdown is available in Ubuntu universe repositories though the package is old! Sadly, there’s no binary package so far for the latest release.

Grab the source tarball from the link page above, install the dependencies via command:

sudo apt install cmake debhelper extra-cmake-modules libkf5config-dev libkf5configwidgets-dev libkf5plasma-dev libkf5globalaccel-dev libkf5idletime-dev libkf5notifications-dev libkf5notifyconfig-dev libkf5crash-dev

You may then follow the ‘README.html’ file from source folder to compile the package yourself.