This is an easy to follow beginner’s guide shows how to encrypt the full file system while installing Ubuntu.

As you may know, it’s easy to hack against Ubuntu Linux physically. Though users can add password protect to the Grub boot menu, the file system is still accessible via a live system, e.g., bootable USB installer.

To prevent your Ubuntu from physical hacking ultimately, adding password protect to the full system disk can be the best choice. And you can do it during installing Ubuntu.

Important: If you forget the password, all data will be lost! No way to reset forgotten password.

1.) Firstly, this tutorial is not a full Ubuntu installation guide. If you are not getting started, take a look at this step by step how to install guide.

2.) If you’re going to install Ubuntu as the ONLY operating system in the hard drive, just choose ‘Erase disk and install Ubuntu‘ when you’re at Installation type page.

Then click on ‘Advanced features’ to choose either LVM or ZFS and enable ‘Encrypt the new Ubuntu installation for security’.

3.) Mostly I’ll choose ‘Something else‘ to manually create partitions for Ubuntu file system.

Unlike Fedora and Manjaro, Ubuntu does not provide an ‘Encrypt‘ checkbox while creating an EXT4 partition. Instead you need to create a partition use as ‘physical volume for encryption’.

a.) Simply choose the free space and click on ‘+‘ icon on partition table. In the pop-up Create partition dialog do:

DO LEAVE 500 MB free space for /boot partition, and a few GB for Swap area if need.
  • Set the size for Ubuntu file system. 20 GB at least. For long time use, as large as possible.
  • Select use as ‘physical volume for encryption‘.
  • Set your password and confirm, and finally click OK.

b.) After clicking OK, wait for a few seconds. A new device ‘/dev/mapper/sdaX_crypt‘ will be created as EXT4 file system.

Highlight it, and click on ‘Change‘ button. In the pop-up dialog, set the mount point as /.

c.) Same to Fedora, you have to create a separated /boot partition, as it can not be encrypted.

To do so, select the free space and click “+” to create:

  • 500 MB should be enough. 1 GB will be better.
  • use as ‘Ext4 journaling file system’
  • mount point /boot

d.) Also create 250 MB ‘EFI System Partition‘ for UEFI boot machine, or 2 MB ‘Reserved BIOS boot area‘ for legacy BIOS boot machine. For small RAM, a swap area is also recommended.

Finally the partition table will look like:

Finally click on “Install Now” button. And confirm on pop-up dialog.

Once you successfully installed Ubuntu, restart and you’ll get into the password prompt when booting Ubuntu (see the top picture). As well, accessing the file system from any other OS need the password you set.

Unlike laptop lid close action, it’s easy to tell Ubuntu to shutdown or hibernate automatically when reached idle timeout.

In all current Ubuntu releases, including Ubuntu 18.04, Ubuntu 20.04, and Ubuntu 21.04 running with the default GNOME desktop, you can enable ‘Automatic Suspend‘ feature in Power Settings easily.

What if you want to power off, hibernate, or even log-out Ubuntu after it reached inactivity timeout? Here’s how to do this in two ways.

Method 1. Run 2 commands to enable Automatic Shutdown / Hibernate:

Firstly open terminal either from system application launcher or by pressing Ctrl+Alt+T on keyboard.

NOTE: Hibernate does not function out-of-the-box in current Ubuntu releases. You have to enable it first if you need automatic hibernation.

When terminal opens, run command:

  • Enable automatic shutdown for desktop PC or laptop on AC power:
    gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power sleep-inactive-ac-type 'shutdown'

    For choices, you can change ‘shutdown’ in command to ‘hibernate‘, ‘logout‘, ‘nothing‘, etc.

  • Change the inactivity timeout (in seconds), half an hour for instance:
    gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power sleep-inactive-ac-timeout 1800

For laptops on battery, use following commands instead:

gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power sleep-inactive-battery-type 'shutdown'
gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power sleep-inactive-battery-timeout 1800

Method 2: Change system idle action via Dconf Editor.

For those prefer graphical configuration tool, search for and install ‘Dconf Editor‘ from Ubuntu Software.

Then launch the tool, and go to ‘org/gnome/settings-daemon/plugins/power‘.

Next scroll down, find out and change the values of ‘sleep-inactive-ac-type‘ and ‘sleep-inactive-ac-timeout‘ for system idle action when on AC power.

When on battery, change the values of ‘sleep-inactive-battery-type‘ and ‘sleep-inactive-battery-timeout‘ instead.

Changes will take place immediately when you click on ‘Apply’ button.

Wine

Wine 6.0.1, the open-source compatibility layer to run Windows apps on Linux, was released as the first point release in the 6.0 stable series.

The release contains mainly bug-fixes, translation updates, and Documentation updates. It also adds a new feature: supporting for wine64 on Apple M1.

A total of 63 bugs has been fixed in the release for the Windows apps or games including Dark Sector, Earth 2160, Shadow Warrior 2, The Elder Scrolls V, The Witcher 3, Adobe Audition 2020, World of Tanks, iTunes 12.11.0.26, and more. See the release note for details.

How to Install Wine 6.0.1 in Ubuntu:

Wine has its own apt repository for Ubuntu, Linux Mint based systems. Open terminal from system app launcher. When it opens, run following commands one by one.

1.) Run command to enable 32 bit architecture (if you don’t have it):

sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386

Type user password (no asterisk feedback) when it asks and hit Enter to continue.

2.) Install the repository key by running command:

wget -O - https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/winehq.key | sudo apt-key add -

3.) Add wine repository

Note there’s A BLANK SPACE before the code name (e.g., focal, groovy, hirsute, bionic) in each command!

  • For Ubuntu 20.04, Linux Mint 20.x, run command:
    sudo apt-add-repository 'deb https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/ubuntu/ focal main'
  • For Ubuntu 20.10, run command:
    sudo apt-add-repository 'deb https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/ubuntu/ groovy main'
  • For Ubuntu 18.04, run command:
    sudo apt-add-repository 'deb https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/ubuntu/ bionic main'
  • For 21.04, run command:
    sudo apt-add-repository 'deb https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/ubuntu/ hirsute main'

Don’t know your system edition? Run lsb_release -a command in terminal to check out.

4.) For Ubuntu 18.04 and Linux Mint 19.x only, libfaudio0 library is required to install from a third-party repository by running command:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:cybermax-dexter/sdl2-backport

5.) Finally install Wine 6.0.1 via command:

sudo apt update && sudo apt install --install-recommends winehq-stable

If you get unmet dependency issue, try aptitude command instead:

sudo apt install aptitude && sudo aptitude install winehq-stable

Still getting unmet dependency issue? Try running command to manually install some missing libraries. The command worked in my Ubuntu 20.04.

sudo apt-get install libgnutls30:i386 libldap-2.4-2:i386 libgpg-error0:i386 libxml2:i386 libasound2-plugins:i386 libsdl2-2.0-0:i386 libfreetype6:i386 libdbus-1-3:i386 libsqlite3-0:i386

Uninstall wine:

You may remove the PPA by launching Software & Updates utility and navigating to Other Software tab.

To remove wine 6.0.1, run command in terminal:

sudo apt remove --auto-remove winehq-stable

Blender 2.79

The free and open-source 3D modeling software Blender 2.93 was announced as LTS (Long Term Support) release.

Blender 2.93 is the last major milestone of the 2.x series. And the next Blender 3.0 is under development now.

Blender 2.93 brings 22 new nodes to the Geometry Nodes editor, mesh primitives support, adds the much anticipated Line Art modifier to automatically generate grease pencil lines around objects, a new and faster fill tool, and many Eevee renderer improvements.

How to Install Blender 2.93 via PPA:

Blender is available officially via Snap package, which can be easily installed from Ubuntu Software.

For those prefer the classic .deb package format, Rob Savoury’s PPA maintains the latest packages for all current Ubuntu releases.

1.) Remove Thomas Schiex’s PPA

If you installed old Blender packages from Thomas Schiex’s PPA, it’s better to remove it first to prevent from going to dependency hell!

Firstly, open terminal from system app launcher.

Secondly, run command to remove the PPA:

sudo add-apt-repository --remove ppa:thomas-schiex/blender

You can try purge the PPA instead, but it won’t work in my case due to issue.

2.) Remove old Blender package:

Open terminal and run command to remove old Blender packages if any:

sudo apt remove blender blender-data libopenshadinglanguage1.10

It’s important to remove libopenshadinglanguage1.10 package, or the configuration will fail while installing Blender 2.93.

3.) Add Rob Savoury’s PPA

To add the new PPA, simply run command in terminal:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:savoury1/blender

4.) And add the FFmpeg PPA for dependency libraries:

To do so, run command in terminal:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:savoury1/ffmpeg4

5.) For Ubuntu 18.04 and Ubuntu 16.04 only.

For Ubuntu 18.04 and Ubuntu 16.04, you need to add even more PPAs for dependencies. To do so, run commands:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:savoury1/gcc-defaults-9
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:savoury1/display

6.) Finally install package updates & install Blender:

Firstly run command to refresh package cache and install available package updates:

sudo apt update && sudo apt full-upgrade

Finally install Blender 2.93 via command:

sudo apt install blender

If everything’s done successfully. Open Blender from system app launcher and enjoy!

Remove Blender and Ubuntu PPAs:

If you don’t use these PPAs anymore and want to remove Blender, purge them by running following commands one by one:

1. Firstly open terminal and run command to install ppa-purge:

sudo apt install ppa-purge

2. Then purge the Ubuntu PPAs one by one:

sudo ppa-purge ppa:savoury1/gcc-defaults-9
sudo ppa-purge ppa:savoury1/ffmpeg4
sudo ppa-purge ppa:savoury1/display
sudo ppa-purge ppa:savoury1/blender

Note purging Ubuntu PPA will either downgrade or remove packages installed from that PPA. Even other packages, GIMP in my case, will be removed.

You can alternatively remove these Ubuntu PPAs only, without uninstalling software packages, by going to ‘Software & Updates -> Other Software’ and removing relevant lines:

Since version 89, the free and open-source Firefox web browser makes use of the new ‘Proton’ UI design.

For those who do not like the new Firefox appearance, the configuration options to re-enable the old style interface is still available in the 89 release.

Revert to old UI Design in Firefox 89:

Firstly, type about:config in the address bar and hit Enter. Click on the ‘Accept the Risk and Continue‘ button when it prompts.

Next type browser.proton in the search box. Then click on the double arrow icons to disable the values of:

  • browser.proton.contextmenus.enabled
  • browser.proton.doorhangers.enabled
  • browser.proton.enabled
  • browser.proton.modals.enabled

The Firefix UI will change immediately after the settings. And you can reset these settings to get back the new ‘Proton’ UI design.

In addition, the previous settings is going to be removed in next release according to this bug. So using a browser theme could be a good choice for long time solution.